Murray Cantor (IBM) talked about ULSS from an industrial perspective, with some hypothetical examples of SoS, the challenges they bring, the state of practice today, and some opportunities and research questions for academia. Murray is a Distinguished Engineer at IBM, but before that he was at Berkeley, working in the area of non-linear mathematics – so he has a good background in both academic research and state of the art in practice. His lectures mostly focused on the engineering problems of SoS, much like Linda Northrop’s first ULSS lecture but without the military motivations – Murray used examples from healthcare and transport to illustrate the problems. His last lecture was about governance in SoS, and different approaches that can be taken to deal with uncertainty and risk. He also talked about calculating the expected value of projects that alter or add to a SoS (so you can make decisions about whether they should proceed or not).